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By William Biggs (auth.), William G. Gensler (eds.)

The photosynthetic means of greater crops converts carbon dioxide, water, and, mild quanta into lowered sugars. The enzymes which catalyze this conversion are contained in the chloroplasts and will be considered cut up into specified teams. in a single workforce are the enzymes of the IIlightll reactions, which harvest the sunshine, oxidize water and generate energy-rich intermediates, ATP and NADPH. those intermediates plus carbon dioxide are the substrates for the second one team, the IIdarkll reactions or Cal vi n cycle, which produce the diminished sugars. The chloroplast is totally bounded by means of an outer membrane. there's a separate, hugely convoluted membrane process, the thyla­ koid process, enclosed in the chloroplast. The enzymes of the sunshine reactions are bodily linked to the thylakoid mem­ branes, whereas the Calvin cycle enzymes are free-floating in the stroma, or soluble a part of the chloroplast (Fig. 1). GRANA MEMBRANES ARE REG I ONS the place THE MEMBRANES ARE APPRESSED ON one another MEMBRANES WH ICH ARE UNAPPRESSED THT1.AKO identification t1EHBRANE ARE STROMA MEMBRANES ( ) (VES I OJLAR) (c _______ determine 1. Schematic illustration of the photosynthetic method in plant chloroplasts. computer and PCred are the oxidized and decreased ox sorts of plastocyanin. PQ and PQH2 are plastoquinone and plasto­ quinol. For clarification, see text.

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